In a communication cable, the optical signal is refracted along the fiber wall for transmission. Optical fiber transmission has many advantages, such as high sensitivity and no interference from noise; small size, light weight, long life, good quality and low price; insulation, high pressure resistance, high temperature, corrosion, suitable for special environment; can be adjusted according to environmental requirements, Signal transmission is easy; high bandwidth, reduced communication, long distance; small crosstalk, high quality; high confidentiality; easy to lay and carry materials.
According to relevant research, the speed of light in quartz glass fiber is 31% slower than that in vacuum, and there is a problem of transmission delay and signal attenuation. The new fiber is a breakthrough in this respect.
In the fiber-optic communication system, the most basic mode is: optical transceiver---optical fiber----optical transceiver, so the main body that affects the transmission distance is the optical transceiver and optical fiber. There are four factors that determine the optical fiber transmission distance, namely optical power, dispersion, loss, and receiver sensitivity. Optical fiber can not only be used to transmit analog signals and digital signals, but also to meet the needs of video transmission.
The greater the power coupled into the fiber, the longer the distance traveled.
In terms of dispersion, the larger the dispersion, the more severe the waveform distortion. As the transmission distance becomes longer, the waveform distortion becomes more severe. In digital communication systems, waveform distortion will cause intersymbol interference, which will reduce the light receiving sensitivity and affect the relay distance of the system.
Including fiber optic patch cord loss and splice loss, mainly per kilometer of loss. The smaller the loss per kilometer, the smaller the loss and the farther the transmission distance.
The higher the sensitivity, the smaller the received optical power and the longer the distance.