1. New Radio (NR) means 5G New Radio
New Radio or 5G NR may not be the original expression, but the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) calls it the product of the 15th edition.The 15th edition of the draft specification was approved in December 2017 and is expected to be completed by mid-2019. The 15th edition is only the beginning because it only specifies the first phase of the 5G mobile communication standard. edition 16 provides a second-stage specification that is expected to be completed in December 2019.
2. 5G uses new spectrum
The question of which frequency spectrum the 5G network will use is worth considering, and the answer industry is slowly becoming clearer. At the beginning of the 5G study, many people were looking forward to the possibility of 5G using millimeter-wave spectrum. This will be an important part of the solution. However, in the short term, frequency spectrums below 6 GHz and millimeter wave segments are the important parts of this. The 15th edition outlines several new spectrums specifically for NR deployments in the 2.5 GHz to 40 GHz range. The two more directly deployed to mobile applications are 3.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz and 4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz. As early as 2018, the 3.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz band is likely to be deployed directly to 5G networks. Regulators in the US, Europe and Asia have liberalized the spectrum of the 5G frequency band. The high bandwidth of this band is very attractive to operators. But the spectrum below 40 GHz is just the beginning. Future 3GPP releases will allow the use of spectrum up to 86 GHz.
3. Beamforming will play a major role
To optimize the signal strength of mobile devices, NR uses a combination of analog and digital beamforming. Beamforming is not a new term for mobile communications, as digital beamforming is now widely used in LTE networks. However, for 5G, the challenges of signal propagation and the small antenna size have spurred widespread use of analog beamforming techniques. Above 24 GHz, analog beamforming with narrow beamwidth allows the 5G base station to more effectively control the downlink link signal.glass yarn for optical fiber cable
4. The first 5G equipment will still rely on LTE
The first phase of 5G NR will eventually include independent networking and non-independent networking modes. In the non-independent networking mode, mobile devices use both 4G and 5G networks to maintain connectivity with LTE eNBs and 5G gNBs. The non-independent networking mode specification completed in December 2017, the completion time of the independent networking mode will be the same as that of the 15th edition. The same time, that is, in mid-2018. At the same time, the new air interface will use both LTE and NR transceivers, giving more power to improve power efficiency and reduce interference. attention.filling compound for optical fiber cable
5. The first phase will still be based on OFDM waveforms.
Although many candidate waveforms have been proposed for 5G, the first stage of NR uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms. The specific form of OFDM used in the 5G NR downlink is the cyclic prefix - OFDM is also the LTE standard The waveform used by the link signal. However, unlike LTE, 5G NR also uses CP-OFDM and DFT-S-OFDM based waveforms in the uplink. Another point is that unlike LTE, 5G NR allows for significant changes in subcarrier spacing. The spacing between LTE subcarriers is almost always 15 kHz, while the 5G NR allows subcarriers to use a 15 kHz x 2n flexible spacing scheme. In 5G NR, the maximum allowed subcarrier spacing is 240 kHz, which is only used for scenes with a carrier bandwidth of 400 MHz.water blocking communication cable gel